Marijuana Linked to Increased Stroke Risk

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Two new studies add to the confusion over the health effects of marijuana.

In one presentation to the American Stroke Association’s International Stroke Conference, researchers from the University of Auckland in New Zealand found an increased risk of stroke among those smoking marijuana compared to those who did not, while research published in the American Heart Journal said marijuana users who had heart attacks were no more likely to die than those those hadn’t smoked cannabis.

The stroke study, which incorporated preliminary data, is the first trial of its kind to study a possible connection between marijuana use and stroke. It included 160 patients aged 18 to 55 who had suffered a stroke connected to a blood clot in the brain, and who agreed to have their urine tested for marijuana within 72 hours of the stroke.  These results were compared to those from 160 controls who had not had a stroke but came to the hospital for other reasons. They were matched on age, gender and ethnic background, all of which can also affect the risk for this type of stroke. About 16% of the stroke patients showed traces of marijuana in their urine, compared to 8% of those in the control group, suggesting a doubling of the risk of stroke.

MORE: Two U.S. States Become First to Legalize Marijuana

“This is the first case-controlled study to show a possible link to the increased risk of stroke from cannabis,” lead author Dr. Alan Barber of the University of Auckland in New Zealand said in a statement.

The study, however, could not separate tobacco smokers from marijuana smokers, because all but one of those testing positive for marijuana in the urine also showed signs of nicotine. Still, Barber said to Everyday Health “We know cannabis can cause changes in blood pressure and heart rate that are associated with increased stroke risk. Importantly, it can also cause heart palpitations, [a sign of atrial fibrillation]. And atrial fibrillation is very strongly associated with stroke.”

The heart attack study, led by Dr. Murray Mittleman of Harvard Medical School,  followed nearly 4,000 heart attack survivors for up to 18 years to investigate any patterns between marijuana use and heart attack patterns. Among the participants, 109 had smoked marijuana at least once in the year before they were hospitalized.  Most were in their 40s and 50s; none of those over age 63 had used marijuana.

MORE: A New Marijuana Plant Without the High? Could be Good Medicine

During the study period, 519 patients died, including 22 marijuana users. But while there was an apparent 29% increase in mortality among those who used marijuana, the result was not statistically significant, meaning that it could have occurred by chance alone.

The study also did not find a relationship between the amount of cannabis used and the risk of death. While the researchers documented that any use was associated with more risk than no use, those who smoked more than once a week paradoxically seemed to be at less risk than those who smoked less than weekly.

Earlier research, however, found that the hour after smoking marijuana is associated with a two-fold to five-fold increase in the risk of heart attack, roughly the same risk seen within an hour of sexual activity. The authors conclude, “[I]t seems prudent to caution patients with coronary heart disease and those at high risk for cardiovascular disease to abstain from smoking marijuana.”

MORE: Teen Drug Use: Marijuana Up, Cigarettes and Alcohol Down

Taken together, the findings highlight the still-confusing state of marijuana research. While some studies have attempted to connect cannabis use with either short or long term health effects, it has proved extremely difficult to pinpoint the specific effects of marijuana because the heaviest marijuana users so often use multiple drugs. That’s in contrast to the research on tobacco, which is far more consistent. Cigarette smoking, for example, increases the risk of lung cancer by a factor of 23 for men and 13 for women, boosts stroke risk by up to four-fold and coronary heart disease by the same amount.  More research using sophisticated controls is necessary to truly understand the risks, whatever they may be.

96 comments
JoeBlohhh
JoeBlohhh

What is NOT said, is that the "risk" of heart attack happens any time a person's

heart rate goes UP. 
Meaning that just plain JOGGING around the block could give you an increased risk of heart attack...... !


(Cannabis makes the heart rate go DOWN, but if a person takes other stimulants, the opposite could happen, 

but it is not more dangerous than taking a brisk RUN or Jog.


This 'report' was televised earlier this morning, and the way it was "reported" made it sound like Cannabis was very dangerous.

When in fact, much of the information about the reason WHY the heart-attacks occurred , were left OUT of the televised report.

Seems like a scare-tactic propaganda technique, and it is wrong and biased.

ImKayJane
ImKayJane

So, the only study they did was make people pee in a cup....last i check thc metabolites stay in your system for 30 days.  so if i toked up 30 days ago and then had a stroke how does that joint i smoked 30 days ago link up to my stroke?  studies are usually performed by observing a group while they consume the drug in question....this was a bunch of bs.  tar, carcinogens, and other toxins from SMOKE INHALATION is what contributes to stroke. NOT CANNABIS.

justthefactsman
justthefactsman

Just more propaganda from the ones who oppose cannabis how can you explaine the federal government owns a patent on cbd cannabinoid inside cannabisthe federal government owns and clearly state in th epatent it reduces stoke by up to 50%  http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=6630507.PN.&OS=PN/6630507&RS=PN/6630507   


Marijuana first became illegal because in 1935 a machine called a decordicator was invented. This machine was going to revolutionize the industrialization of Marijuana. Then out came the articles...


the cover of popular mechanics the title read "Hemp c
alled billion dollar crop" It was the first time a cash crop had the potential to exceed a billion dollars. Mechanical engineering magazine printed an article entitled, "The most profitable and desirable crop that can be grown". It stated "If hemp is cultivated using 20th century technology it would be the single largest agricultural crop in the united states and the rest of the world."

Well, there was a serious problem with this because Dupont had just patented a new process for producing plastics from oil, something that could be done with Hemp oil with much less pollution. As well, William Randolph Hurst provided most of America with it's paper products, owned the largest Logging yard and his own news paper printing press. Both of these companies were going to lose BILLIONS of dollars. Needless to say, they went to work fast. Hurst started printing headlines in the papers only he didn't refer to the plant as Hemp because everyone knew that name. No he started calling it something no one had ever heard of "Marijuana" a type of mexican wild tobacco that is not even a cannabinoid. " Marijuana, new type of cigarette from Mexico makes people crazy, sexually immoral and violent", "Marijuana will make white women sleep with black men", "Marijuana will make a black man look at a white woman twice", "Black men smoking Marijuana kidnap and rape white woman for 3 days, result: pregnancy"

Everyone went nuts believing everything they read on the front pages of these newspapers he was printing off and going crazy to make this new thing illegal. Meanwhile Dupont was working hard tracking down resources on Capital Hill to make it illegal.

Andrew Mellon became Hoover's Secretary of the Treasury. He was Dupont's primary investor. His future Nephew in law was Harry J. Anslinger. Andrew Mellon appointed him to oversea the newly created Federal bureau narcotics. 

"Most marijuana smokers are Negroes, mexicans, jazz musicians, and entertainers. Their satanic music is driven by marijuana, and smoking by white women makes them want to seek sexual relations with negroes, entertainers and others. It is a drug that causes insanity, criminality, and death - the most violence causing drug in the history of mankind." - Harry J. Anslinger

On April 14th, 1937 the Prohibitive Marijuana Tax Law, or the Bill that outlawed hemp, was directly brought to the House-ways and Means committee. This committee is the only one that can bring it to the floor without it being debated by other committees. The chairman was Robert Doten, he was a Dupont supporter, and he insured that the bill would pass Congress. Congress made Marijuana illegal not even realizing they were making Hemp illegal.

Fast forward to World War 2: The government was going to make Marijuana legal before world war 2 but then the war happened. "marijuana will pacify you so much that soldiers will not want to fight." - Harry J. Anslinger. So they kept it illegal for the opposite reason of why they made it illegal to begin with.

Fast forward to 1974: "The most reliable scientific sources report that permanant brain damage is one of the inevitable results of the use of marijuana." President Ronald Reagan
This quote was based on Dr. Heath/Tuland study This study became the foundation of the government and other special interests group's claim that marijuana kills brain cells. But here is what they didn't tell you...It took 6 years of requests before the reports of how the study was really conducted to be revealed. 

Instead of administering 30 joints a day for one year as they had originally claimed and as the study was suppose to be conducted, Dr. Heath used a method of pumping 63 joints worth of columbia strength marijuana through a gas mask with no oxygen added for 5 minutes at a time and repeated this process every day over a period of 3 months. They suffocated the monkeys and then associated it with the marijuana and said "marijuana causes brain damage, serious illness and death." 

"4 minutes without oxygen, brain damage may result" St. John Ambulance - First Aid Guide

Every study on how marijuana effects the brain since by credible sources, "researchers have concluded that Marijuana aids in the production of new neurons and entire neural pathways" - University of Colorado Biology Department.

Source(s):
Today marijuana is still illegal because of all these lies and pseudo scientific studies. "The Partnership for a Drug Free America" is funded by alcohol and tobacco companies because marijuana is shown to reduce the urge to drink alcohol and smoke cigarettes. Many no name universities that take funding from anti-marijuana Pharmaceutical companies put out studies that have no conclusive evidence of anything and use words like "May" and "Theoretically" while the conclusive research done by credible researchers conclusively prove the opposite. Many politicians today are invested in and even own oil companies.

chickenchaser
chickenchaser

"all but one of those testing positive for marijuana in the urine also showed signs of nicotine" So they were basically all cigarette smokers too.  

A quick search reveals that cigarette smokers are 2-4 times more likely to develop coronary heart disease than nonsmokers. Therefore a logical conclusion would be that it was the cigarettes, not the marijuana that caused the increase in stroke risk. 

In fact it's possible that marijuana has a preventative effect on stroke. The fact that there was only ONE person who tested positive for marijuana and not tobacco is mind bottling. That is a statistical anomaly. 


JuliusLannutti
JuliusLannutti

they should do this study on people eating at buffets

JuliusLannutti
JuliusLannutti

Isn't it amazing how when they studied heart attack survivors ONLY 109 out of 4,000 used marijuana... way lower than the national average of 10%.  its amazingly low.

AlexandrosMoros
AlexandrosMoros

ok this is good, but what about the patients who smoekd CANNABIS and had stroke, and compared to those who DIDNT smoke cannabis and had a stroke, NOW COMPARE THOSE TWO BY DAMAGE IN THE BRAIN,  and you will find with 100 % certainty that cannabis users didnt have so much damage

marieperry123
marieperry123

I wish we could have the FDA research marijuana and put it into a medical form that doesnt get folks high and sell it through the pharmacy like every other drug...

TamiTiptonHalphen
TamiTiptonHalphen

"Earlier research, however, found that the hour after smoking marijuana is associated with a two-fold to five-fold increase in the risk of heart attack, roughly the same risk seen within an hour of sexual activity."

It could mean that the marijuana caused it, or it could mean that someone that was starting to have a heart attack is not feeling too well and might decide to smoke a joint to see if that makes them feel better.



Paulpot
Paulpot

The title to this should really read "Propaganda Masquerades as Study".

YellowJuanaCake
YellowJuanaCake

Why is Time reporting on reefer madness and perpetuating the lies?  Shameful journalism, even worse research since they couldn't exclude tobacco consumers, it negates the study results and also the stupid conclusions they draw from the bad data.

KarenDermody
KarenDermody

This article just increased my stroke risk because of its ridiculousness. Horrible journalism, talk about twisting facts. 

damonhr
damonhr

Ok, so users in the study but for one person smoked both nicotine and cannabis. So users of both have 2X risk, and users of nicotine alone have 4X risk. Looks like the study actually suggests that smoking cannabis reduces the risk of smoking nicotine alone by half. A protective effect if anything. 

GarretSidzaka
GarretSidzaka

NICOTINE AND CANNABIS?!?!?!!?!!?!?!?!?!?

this is misinfo reporting at its best, thanks time

NormanTallnorth
NormanTallnorth

BLAME    smog        it  is anywhere  on our    graveearth

byrondelaney
byrondelaney

Whoah this is weird as a comparison:

Smoking Menthols May Double Your Risk of StrokeAnd the risk may be three times higher for women and non-black smokers.

Cigarettes flavored with menthola substance which triggers a sensation of "minty" coldnesshave been tied to higher stroke risk, according to Canadian researchers. The FDA has long claimed that menthol cigarettes are more hazardous, and results of a new study, published in the Archives of Internal Medicine, confirms thisresearchers found that the risk for stroke more than doubled for those who smoked menthols compared to those who smoke regular cigarettes. And the risk was more than three times higher for women and non-black smokers. Oddly, menthol smokers had no elevated risk of high blood pressure, heart attack, heart failure, and the lung disease chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). "One potential mechanism is that menthol stimulates upper-airway cold receptors, which can increase breath-holding time, which may in turn facilitate the entrance of cigarette particulate matter into the lungs," said lead study author Dr. Nicholas Vozoris of St. Michael's Hospital. "Why smoking mentholated cigarettes would not result in an increase in forms of cardiopulmonary disease, other than stroke, is not clear." Researchers built on data conducted during 2001-2008, from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys on more than 5,000 smokers age 20 and older. The study isn't meant to prove that smoking menthols is worse than smoking other types of cigarettes, but to inform people of the stroke risk that menthols carry. "There is no 'good' cigarette type," Vozoris said. "Smoking any kind of cigarette is bad for one's health, and serves to increase one's risk for a variety of cancers, heart diseases and lung diseases. However, this study shows that smoking mentholated cigarettes may place one at even higher risk for stroke than smoking regular, non-mentholated cigarettes." 

byrondelaney
byrondelaney

Also interesting as a comparison:

Heavy drinkers are more likely to have a stroke nearly 15 years earlier than those who drink less, a new study says.

If you were looking for another reason to avoid drinking your face off, a new study has found that binge drinkingraises the risk for a bleeding stroke at a younger age. Published in the journal Neurology, French researchers discovered that people who drank three or more alcoholic drinks daily were more likely to have a stroke nearly adecade and a half earlier than those who drank less. Based on 540 people (average age 71) who'd had an intracerebral hemorrhage (a less common stroke that is caused by bleeding in the brain), 25% were identified as heavy drinkers—meaning they consume three or more drinks or 1.6 ounces of pure alcohol a day. The researchers also reviewed each of the participants' medical records and required them to take brain CT scans; they found that the heavy drinkers averaged age 60 when they had a stroke—as opposed to an average age of 74 amongst the moderate or non-drinkers. “The study does add to our knowledge that excessive drinking is bad for our health in a variety of ways, including increased risk of bleeding into the brain,” says Deepak L. Bhatt, MD, MPH, a heart doctor at Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston. “If someone enjoys drinking, I don’t discourage them, but I will caution them even more so after this study to make sure that the amount is considered moderate.”

byrondelaney
byrondelaney

OK I found out the real deal about strokes and cannabis. Here is the type of "stroke" that it can cause, it's not really a stroke usually but can sometimes lead to one:

Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is characterized by two main features. The first one is the sudden onset of a thunderclap headache. The second one is the presence of areas of narrowing or "vasoconstriction" where the wall of one or more arteries in the brain experience a cramp that prevents blood flow. These areas can be easily diagnosed by a catheter angiogram, although sometimes it can also be seen with magnetic resonance angiography (MRA).

What Causes RCVS?The cause of RCVS is not known, but it is thought that it results from a transient disturbance of the arterial wall, which leads to its constriction. Several substances have been associated with RCVS, including:

bert8327
bert8327

false, cannabis being a depresant can prevent hypertension. 

Paulpot
Paulpot

Another study from New Zealand, land of the long white cloud of marijuana smoke. 

NZ has the highest rate of marijuana use in the world. 

If this study, and all the others from NZ were true, then NZ would be the drug zombie apocalypse. 

Truth is the general mental and physical health of New Zealanders is no different to any other western nation or to the time before marijuana use became a popular national pass time. 

The fact that tobacco use could not be separated from marijuana use is very telling. Many marijuana smokers mix tobacco with their marijuana. 

Even more telling is the researchers dismissal of tobacco use as a factor. 

Tobacco is known beyond any doubt to have negative health effects yet this so-called researcher is able to dismiss it. Clearly a case of bias in a field where bias has no place. 

All in all just another piece of police state propaganda for the consumption of the masses.

CeleneSkullz
CeleneSkullz

"The study, however, could not separate tobacco smokers from marijuana smokers, because all but one of those testing positive for marijuana in the urine also showed signs of nicotine"  Ummm... This study is useless if it cant separate marijuana smokers from people who also smoke tobacco.

"Earlier research, however, found that the hour after smoking marijuana is associated with a two-fold to five-fold increase in the risk of heart attack, roughly the same risk seen within an hour of sexual activity."  So having sex is just as dangerous has smoking pot now?  




RMHESP
RMHESP

"Stroke" side had 160 'controls'.

Marijuana side had ??? 'controls'.  How many of the stroke victims using marijuana did by smoking it........how many used an alternative delivery system:  prescribed a pill by an oncologist, or by using a vaporizer, water pipe, or baked goods.  If we assume that had been screened (that only those who smoked) then compare the marijuana smokers to cigarette smokers.  I doubt there is much difference, but many of us use alternatives

BobWilliamKnight
BobWilliamKnight

the univ. of Auckland is making a bad name for themselves !!! Just who funds these nuts?

byrondelaney
byrondelaney

Sativex is  a raw cannabis extract that's an approved pharmaceutical in Britain, Canada, and other countries. It has undergone human clinical testing and is not associated with increased risk of stroke. So I'm guess that if cannabinoids are associated with strokes, they're likely synthetic, so perhaps illicit marijuana is sometimes spiked with them. 

MichaelBautistaSmith
MichaelBautistaSmith

"Marijuana use by infants up 10,000%!"  "Catholic Priests -the biggest Bogarts?" "Wild Pot plants take over National Forests - Can't see the trees for the weed" "Marijuana linked to increased laughter risk"  "Marijuana linked to increase in decrease of pain" "Marijuana used by Millions for thousands of years - it must be bad for you" "DEA Declares Stunning 48 State Victory in War Against Marijuana After 80 Million Pot Users Suddenly Move to Washington And Colorado"  The media has lost their credibility.

byrondelaney
byrondelaney

From the Mayo Clinic site about stroke risk factors:

Potentially treatable risk factors 

  • High blood pressure — risk of stroke begins to increase at blood pressure readings higher than 120/80 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg). Your doctor will help you decide on a target blood pressure based on your age, whether you have diabetes and other factors.
  • Cigarette smoking or exposure to secondhand smoke.
  • High cholesterol — a total cholesterol level above 200 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL), or 5.2 millimoles per liter (mmol/L).
  • Diabetes.
  • Being overweight or obese.
  • Physical inactivity.
  • Obstructive sleep apnea (a sleep disorder in which the oxygen level intermittently drops during the night).
  • Cardiovascular disease, including heart failure, heart defects, heart infection or abnormal heart rhythm.
  • Use of some birth control pills or hormone therapies that include estrogen.
  • Heavy or binge drinking.
  • Use of illicit drugs such as cocaine and methamphetamines.

ThoseWhoKant
ThoseWhoKant

Unfortunately, the researchers failed to acknowledge the American Heart Association's 2013 Report. Citing a Surgeon General report from 2010, 'smokers have a 2-4 times greater risk of stroke compared to non-smokers or those who have quit for >10 years. On a conservative basis, it appears cannabis has no discernible causation. On the other hand, correlation of risks 2X in the New Zealand study vs 2x-4X in the American Heart Association study may show that cannabis mitigates stroke risk vs smokers who do not use cannabis. There are some 60 cannabinoids in cannabis, many of which potentially act as antagonists to symptoms and diseases.

The headline is grossly deceptive and shame on Time's editors for picking up the story and running with it without comparing to the vast library of studies available. I expected more.

byrondelaney
byrondelaney

Here's another one. Marijuana is linked to heart attacks but, guess what is more linked to heart attacks, according to a very recent medical study? Eating heavy meals. And "negative emotions" are listed right after cannabis. Hmmm. 

byrondelaney
byrondelaney

A new study about Cannabis and stroke says that there  have been 59 documented cases of stokes caused by cannabis. The population of the world is...hmmm. Anyhow, it seems that to be safe, you should not do anything else that could potentially cause a stroke while using cannabis, thus minimizing risk. Besides that, it's interesting that another new study says that stroke patients benefit from cannabis. Hmmmm. 

MalcolmKyle
MalcolmKyle

In this Auckland University study, all but one of the stroke patients who were cannabis users also used tobacco regularly.

The author (Dr. P. Alan Barber) openly admits that the study didn't account for tobacco use —how long and how much the young stroke patients had been smoking and how big a role that might have played in stroke risk. The "study" also relied on urine samples, but traces of THC can be found in the urine for at least a whole month after consumption of cannabis.

According to the US National Stroke Association, "Smoking tobacco (at least)doubles the risk for stroke when compared to a non-smoker. It reduces the amount of oxygen in the blood, causing the heart to work harder and allowing blood clots to form more easily."

"Prohibitionists are scraping the bottom of the barrel by claiming that cannabis doubles the risk of stroke, when this result has already been linked to tobacco use. There is nothing scientific about this study and it should be discredited by all rational individuals." —Norml president Julian Crawford

"Narcotics police are an enormous, corrupt international bureaucracy … and now fund a coterie of researchers who provide them with ‘scientific support’ … fanatics who distort the legitimate research of others.… The anti-marijuana campaign is a cancerous tissue of lies, undermining law enforcement, aggravating the drug problem, depriving the sick of needed help, and suckering well-intentioned conservatives and countless frightened parents." —William F. Buckley, commentary in The National Review, April 29, 1983, p. 495

KeepItCottage
KeepItCottage

The fact that twice as many people who had THC in their blood had strokes than those who didn't is interesting, but the fact that cannabis is illegal causes paranoia, anxiety and other stesses that can play hell on people's bodies. It is difficult to objectively study something which is as much of a taboo as cannabis.

cYaSK8
cYaSK8

and then morons read this as fact and pass it on like 'A NEW STUDY SHOWS POT IS BAD FOR YOU' 

FOR THE LAST 50 YEARS  have we seen markers that show really how bad pot is?  look at alcohol, we know it's troublesome but ciggys can be promoted everywhere and we know its problems. i'm sorry, the jury isnt in to show that millions of people imbibing are not keeling over and dieing and filling hospitals with misfits.  This study is TRASH! 

SharonARichter
SharonARichter

And for your info MOST people who smoke or ingest cannabis do not use MANY other drugs you moron...

SharonARichter
SharonARichter

So are you saying that Dr. David Allen is a liar? Here is a clip of what he has to say about this matter...He is a Heart and stroke specialist..I think I will give him more credit of knowing just what the hell he is talking about than you!!!...How much did u get paid to write this trash..Not sure how you sleep at night because this trash article of yours could actually cost someone their LIFE!!!...  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Kvwz9WyI3OM

SeanMaddox
SeanMaddox

@ImKayJane Not to mention, they even admit they couldn't parse out smokers. Nicotine is a known blood clout contributor, so how can they point to marijuana as the cause, when these people clearly chain smoke. Nicotine leaves the system fast. How are these dolts making these giant paychecks off such ridiculous and faulty work?

jaded1983
jaded1983

@chickenchaser Agreed, these studies have too many flaws in them. You cannot have that many variables in a study and then make a connection.

JuliusLannutti
JuliusLannutti

i mean using 10% as an average... you'd expect at least 400 to have smoked pot.. but it was only 100... doesn't this study possibly indicate a four times lower risk of heart attack?

byrondelaney
byrondelaney

More causes:

  1. Idiopathic RCVS, some times called Call-Fleming Syndrome
  2. Pregnancy
  3. Eclampsia / delayed post-partum eclampsia
  4. Acute Severe Hypertension (Hypertensive crisis)
  5. Drugs
  • Pseudoephedrine
  • Ergotamine
  • Bromocriptine
  • SSRI anti-depressants
  • Sumatriptan
  • Cocaine
  • Ecstasy
  • Amphetamines
  • Marijuana / LSD
  • Tacrolimus
  • Cyclophosphamide
  • Erythropoietin (EPO)
  • Blood product associated
    • Intravenous Immunoglobulin
    • Red Cell Transfusion
  • Hypercalcaemia
  • Porphyria
  • Phaeochromocytoma
  • Bronchial Carcinoid Tumor
  • Head trauma
  • Spinal Subdural Haematoma
  • Carotid Endarterectomy Following Neurosurgical Procedures
  • Exercise Induced Headache
  • Sexual Activity
  • BobWilliamKnight
    BobWilliamKnight

    @MichaelBautistaSmith how bout marijuana increases orgasms ?  lol I find the media is sometimes credible but these auck. univ  ones are always lying  British studies are too

    maxwood
    maxwood

    I'd like to add that in Australia and New Zealand, as in Europe, there is a prevalence of "diluting" cannabis with $igarette tobacco-- often out of fear that the cannabis is "too strong".  Result: hooked for life!  Plus health issues then conveniently blamed on the cannabis.

    The study also apparently didn't account for Hot Burning Overdose Monoxide (t)rolling papers.  Another website reporting on this same story had a nice picture at the top of someone "puffing" on an HBOM -- Big 2WackGo's paid media and pols keep promoting that INSTEAD of vaporizers and 25-mg-serving-size one-hitters.

    JuliusLannutti
    JuliusLannutti

    federal government estimates between 8 and 12 percent regularly use pot.