Pot Smokers and Schizophrenic Patients May Share Similar Brain Changes

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The latest data suggest that it’s possible to be a pothead.

Teens who were heavy marijuana smokers, smoking every day for about three years, had more difficulty performing memory tasks and had abnormal brain structure changes compared with those who had never used the drug.

The findings, published in the journal Schizophrenia Bulletin, add to the debate over how potentially damaging marijuana can be on the brain, and how long lasting cannabis’ influence on brain structures is. Previous studies found memory loss among marijuana users, but scientists continue to struggle with teasing apart whether marijuana contributes to these memory problems, or whether those with memory issues tend to turn to marijuana more frequently.

The latest study involved nearly 100 teens between ages 16 and 17 who were split into four groups: those who had used marijuana in the past, those who had not, schizophrenia patients who had never used marijuana and schizophrenia patients who had. The participants reported not abusing any drugs other than marijuana.

(MORE: The Link Between Marijuana and Schizophrenia)

The researchers performed MRI scans on the participants’ brains and compared various anatomical structures; the healthy former marijuana smokers and the schizophrenic participants who had smoked marijuana both showed shrinkage of regions in the brain connected with working memory compared with the healthy and schizophrenic teens who had not used marijuana. And this change apparently had real effects; when all of the participants took memory tests, the healthy volunteers who never used marijuana scored 37 times higher on average than those who had smoked pot, and the schizophrenic patients who hadn’t used marijuana scored four times higher than their schizophrenic counterparts who had.

The results are especially troubling for those with mental-health issues, or may be at greater risk of them. “The abuse of popular street drugs, such as marijuana, may have dangerous implications for young people who are developing or have developed mental disorders,” study author Dr. John Csernansky, the chair of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine and Northwestern Memorial Hospital, in Chicago, said in a statement. “This paper is among the first to reveal that the use of marijuana may contribute to the changes in brain structure that have been associated with having schizophrenia.”

While the study doesn’t establish that smoking pot can cause schizophrenia, it does suggest that marijuana use should be investigated as a possible contributor to brain changes that can mirror those linked to the psychotic disorder. The authors also acknowledge that further research — conducted on a population of people over an extended period of time — is needed to better understand whether certain structural differences make it more likely that people will abuse marijuana, or whether cannabis can actually contribute to these anatomical differences.

MORE: Marijuana Linked to Increased Stroke Risk

62 comments
www.bulksmsbase.com
www.bulksmsbase.com

"Teens who were heavy marijuana smokers, smoking every day for about three years, had more difficulty performing memory tasks and had abnormal brain structure changes compared with those who had never used the drug." This is a very good advice for those who will not destroy his/her destine. keep it up.

www.bulksmsbase.com
www.bulksmsbase.com

"Pot Smokers and Schizophrenic Patients May Share Similar Brain Changes". I hope this discovery is spread for those smokers to know. Thanks.

bulksmsbase1
bulksmsbase1

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HeatherSchuller
HeatherSchuller

My mom is schizophrenic and never smoked marijuana, I suffer from bipolar like so many other woman in my family. This is an environmental and family disease. I was diagnosed in 2007 and didn't use marijuana at all. I was a zombie on the meds they had me on, plus I was diagnosed with fibromyalgia and had hideous migraines. The only way I can function today without being a zombie and relieve the pain is to manage it using cannabis as opposed to the twenty medicines they had me on which in return only attack my other organs and I still had manic attacks on them. The whole thing is ridiculous. My blog shows how keeping this plant on a schedule I is ridiculous and I'm on a mission to get the truth out http://heatherlschuller.wordpress.com/

lipjo
lipjo

schizophrenia and related mental illnesses are related to massive memory losses. I have schizoaffective disorder and I can tell you after being diagnosed for 9 years that's most of the problem with my everyday life. Your brain is trained by you and what you interact with in everyday life and when you forget all that, piece by piece, if your memory comes back, it will only be trained to negative actions and reactions, experiences and most of all, the most traumatic experiences of your life. It's not marijuana necessarily that causes this, but many things at once. In degress, some drugs can "hurry up" that process and cause psychosis. Its also on how you take in your surroundings, as some people are actually born with mental illness, which is linked to the adding of traumatic events and how the brain digest those happenings in everyday life. I conclude that some prescription medicine can "train" your brain to think that way as well. Some mental illnesses are, if treated over time, curable. Some keep it, some don't.

brenro12
brenro12

After over a century they're still grasping at straws trying to prove that marijuana is somehow dangerous. The public is enlightened. It's time to give it up.

Askjiir
Askjiir

I had a bad effect of this drug.  Many I know have gotten schizophrenic by it. I find the pro weed propaganda and hate campaign against any doubters, to be a very harmful trend. Please post these findings without feeling guilty brave Journalist. Let them not destroy free speech!

DouglasJ.Heuer
DouglasJ.Heuer

did someone say looney-toons journalism. This article is too funny, sarcasm at best..... ROFL.

Pix2Flix
Pix2Flix

Most likely the study was funded by drug companies. Think of how much money they stand to lose (and are loosing) as people find alternative ways in which to treat their mental health issues.

GregBert
GregBert

so this kid smoked "cali green" and look at the poor grammar and writing skills in the post. Hmmmm....

charlyclay69
charlyclay69

too funny.... come up with something new please.... I smoked at least a sack a day of that cali green for my senior year and I dont remember my senior year in HS.... and somehow i was on the honor roll 3.5+ avg did really good in any sport played... Soccer/Track/Baseball..... I had never gotten above the average D's and C's ever in school.... but somehow weed triggered memory loss and bad grades for that year  WTFE get a new one and come back w/ something that matters... Weed isnt bad

rabautius
rabautius

The same old prohibitionist lies again and again, well paid by state agencies and religious organizations, no matter if protestant oder narconon.

Paulpot
Paulpot

Cannabis is a treatment for schizophrenia and various mental illness'.

A lot of people with problems know that and that is why they use it.
Police also know this and they have a tendency to search and arrest people who they know have or appear to have mental illness. 
Prohibition says we will deal with mental illness by arresting the mentally ill.
It is prohibition that causes depression and other symptoms of mental illness.
Pharmaceutical drugs are also known to cause problems for the mentally ill as does alcohol but these are legal, pills are even forced onto many mental patients.
Prohibition and the pharma-narco state are responsible for the mental health problems of millions of people. 
Prohibition forced mental illness on the community.

JonathanBirch
JonathanBirch

I only ever felt schizophrenic or changes in brain behaviour after I took prescription drugs. Marijuana simply opened up my mind to the truth.

fastreflexx
fastreflexx

Poorly conducted 'study' and a true disservice to the movement of truth. Shame on you for this propaganda. Luckily the american public is getting smarter and realizing these ridiculous statements for what they are. Lies. 

MaryMiller4
MaryMiller4

I think that everyone that commented on this 'study' (and put in quotes for a reason, it certainly would not pass as a 'study' in most universities given the size of the population, the lack of ruling out other drug uses (including allopathic medications), as well as what the 'pot' is….Since there is no such thing at "the pot", variant to strains used in the study (or elsewhere), it's truly misleading; you need to have all participants smoking the same strain of species, with the same exact mri response to a genetic condition (since we are talking about a mental illness that has a proven genetic deficiency), to the same exact areas of the brain, long term function etc.  


To come up with a realistic conclusion about that ONE strain of Cannabis!!  This is for only ONE strain, you would need to test all strains (3 major strains with various crossbred and hybrids) in the Sativa strain alone, there currently are a known 167 various varieties of breeds, and cross breeds) each of these breeds contain a specific level of all canabanoids, THCA, CBDs, etc, which would have very specific changes to brain chemistry; not to mention how many addition Indica strains there are as well!  It is well known even in our country that currently does NO studies on medical effect of cannabis, that the main strain of Indica, has a depressing element (or relaxation), were as the Sativa main strain has a energetic high to users.   If this is true then "pot" whatever that may be they they used as a study, would not give consistent results regardless, because all users would have had to use the exact same strain, the exact breed, coming from the same plant!  This would have to have a specific plant with specific growth conditions being identical, using the same plant almost since plants can variant.  This is silly!


This is an attempt by whoever funded this study to backlash folks who need this for medical reasons, to backlash both Washington State as well as Colorado for legalizing the drug, and to show 'proof' why the people (including Charlotte Figi, with severe epilepsy) are using "pot" (again, which pot?), should be slapped on the wrist, and stopped.


The reality; this is no different than the cigarette industry protecting itself by conjecture that cigarettes weren't causing lung cancer, causing addiction, that second hand smoke had "no known affect on children growing up in smoker households (ending up with severe asthma and other breathing related problems).  I suspect we will hear more shock studies on "pot", because  it has a strong lobbyist to avoid this plant from being properly investigated and studied:  i.e., the alcohol lobbyist, the tobacco lobbyists, the tea party lobbyists, the pharmaceutical industry (who by the way, concludes there is no proof of medical use of Cannabis, but produces two strains of pills used for cancer, et al:  marinol and stativanol.  If it has no medical benefit whatsoever, these pills would not exist).

curtisgarcia66
curtisgarcia66

This explains why so many marijuana users I've come into contact with have the apparent IQ of your average first grader.

nerdsignal
nerdsignal

This article is nothing more than horrible propaganda. The key phrase throughout is

The participants reported not abusing any drugs other than marijuana.

The young users most likely have consumed alcohol and other drugs if they have been exposed to marijuana. It is proven that alcohol has drastic effects on the brain at such a young age.

mary.waterton
mary.waterton

I have long suspected that the rash of murder-suicides in schools throughout America might have something to do with pot smoking, it being the drug of choice among teens.

BlueStockings24
BlueStockings24

I just want to scream my head off when I see headlines such as these above.  MAY????  MAY???   When and where did real journalism take a hike?  Today's media is …PERHAPS, COULD BE, WATCH OUT, MAY … it's all bull crap by TOO MANY PHONEY JOURNALISTS … Thank you now I feel better.

Byron … thank you for a lucid and thought provoking response to this madness. 

byrondelaney
byrondelaney

Tobacco does this! 


Smoking and schizophrenia independently and additively reduce white matter integrity between striatum and frontal cortex.


Although schizophrenia patients are at high risk for tobacco use, the neurobiological basis of this comorbid association is not clear. White matter abnormalities have been described independently in schizophrenia and smoking cohorts. We sought to determine whether smoking and schizophrenia are associated with similar white matter abnormalities that could be biomarkers for the high risk of smoking in schizophrenia.

METHODS:

Whole brain white matter integrity (fractional anisotropy) was measured in 46 schizophrenia patients (32 smokers and 14 nonsmokers) and 69 healthy age-matched control subjects (48 smokers and 21 nonsmokers).

RESULTS:

Schizophrenia and smoking status were independently and additively associated with reduced fractional anisotropy in left anterior thalamic radiation/anterior limb of the internal capsule, and significant fractional anisotropy decreases were identified in the bilateral uncinate fasciculus/inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus in schizophrenia and the left prefrontal area in smoking status separately.

CONCLUSIONS:

Common and distinct patterns of impaired white matter are associated with schizophrenia and smoking. Particularly, the anatomic congruence of an additive white matter abnormality in the anterior thalamic radiation/anterior limb of the internal capsule suggests that this abnormal fiber connectivity between frontal cortex and striatum/thalamus may be a biomarker for the increased comorbid smoking in schizophrenia patients.

DeweySayenoff
DeweySayenoff

The sample size is utterly inadequate and too selective.  There is no link to the study itself (which means one has to Google it to read it) and it's full of rather self-serving conclusions.

The long and short of it is that there are physiological differences, environmentally caused, by cannabis (as one would expect) that are similar to schizophrenia.  But the same exact kinds of things are shown by brain scans of leftists and rightists - physiological changes based on political ideology caused not by genetics, but by environment (Indoctrination works, and can be seen in scans).  When exposed to a different political ideology, they show physiological changes in the brain to that as well.

The bottom line is that the changes are reversible in pot smokers.  Not so much in the actual schizophrenics. While the tale is cautionary about who should and shouldn't smoke pot is valid with regard to mental illness, the exact thing should be said about exposure to alcohol and even over the counter cold remedies.

This article does nothing to add to any discussion about pot use, and undermines much of what is real about marijuana use.

RB1
RB1

I would like to see the data on funding for this project, these research facilities, and the research training and work histories of the primary researcher staff. It's amazing how new research outcomes are announced after a recent organizational meeting of the powers-to-be against marijuana legalization!  I'm not saying that there aren't controversies over the effects of pot, but guess what neither can that be said about something as simple as aspirin. If the funding for this research was provided by an organization dedicated to the continued illegalization of pot, then this project is biased and thus an invalid outcome!

malcolmkyle16
malcolmkyle16

Health concerns regarding marijuana tend to come from a self-fueling group of discredited scientists funded by the pharmaceutical, prison, tobacco, and alcohol industries, pushing non-peer-reviewed papers while relying upon reports issued by others in their own group to further support their own grossly misleading research and clearly biased agendas.


The latest Harvard University study, published Dec 4th, 2013 in the journal Schizophrenia Research, adds support to the role of genetic factors in schizophrenia, and states that marijuana use alone does not increase the risk of developing the disorder. The latest findings provide enough evidence for Dr. DeLisi and her team to conclude that "Cannabis is unlikely to be the cause of this illness.”

Source: PII: S0920-9964(13)00610-5 doi:10.1016/j.schres.2013.11.014  —Published by Elsevier Inc.

LINK: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24309013


Association is not Causation:


Schizophrenia affects approximately one percent of the population. That percentage has held steady since the disease was identified, while the percentage of people who have smoked marijuana has varied from about 5% to around 40% of the general population.


Despite a massive increase in the number of Australians consuming the drug since the 1960s, Wayne Hall of the University of Queensland found no increase in the number of cases of schizophrenia in Australia. Mitch Earleywine of the University of Southern California similarly found the same with regard to the US population and Oxford's Leslie Iversen found the same regard to the population in the UK. According to Dr. Alan Brown, a professor of psychiatry and epidemiology at Columbia University, "If anything, the studies seem to show a possible decline in schizophrenia from the '40s and the ‘50s".


Kindly Google any of the following combinations:


Nicotine and Schizophrenia

Alcohol and Schizophrenia

Chocolate and Schizophrenia

Sugar and Schizophrenia

Gluten and Schizophrenia


So should we hand the market in any of the above substances to criminals (which is what prohibition effectively does) because its use is "associated" with a certain minute part of the population? Many bipolar patients misuse caffeine and tobacco in an effort to bring on a manic state, thus becoming a danger to themselves or others. Should tobacco and caffeine or whatever works for each individual be prohibited to boost ratings or rhetoric also? Where does it end?


On average, a person with a chronic mental illness will die 25 years earlier than expected for the rest of the population. Tobacco smoking is the major contributor to this premature mortality. This population consumes 44% of all tobacco cigarettes. 

malcolmkyle16
malcolmkyle16


* Martin Frisher, PhD, Senior Lecturer in Health Services Research at Keele University, et al., stated the following in their Sep. 2009 article titled "Assessing the Impact of Cannabis Use on Trends in Diagnosed Schizophrenia in the United Kingdom from 1996 to 2005," published in Schizophrenia Research:


"The results of this study indicate that the incidence and prevalence of diagnoses of schizophrenia and psychoses in general practice did not increase between 1996 and 2005...

This study does not therefore support the specific causal link between cannabis use and the incidence of psychotic disorders...

The most parsimonious explanation of the results reported here are that the schizophrenia/psychoses data presented here are valid and the causal models linking cannabis with schizophrenia/psychoses are not supported by this study."


* Colin Blakemore, PhD, ScD, Chair of the Department of Physiology at the University of Oxford, wrote in a Dec. 27, 2002 email to ProCon.org:


"It is conceivable that excessive use of cannabis sometimes contributes to acute schizophrenic episodes. But it is difficult to believe that cannabis is a strong risk factor for this disorder, because there is no evidence that the incidence of schizophrenia has risen dramatically over the past 50 years, in parallel with the huge increase in cannabis use.

Young schizophrenic patients are often heavy cigarette smokers too, but no-one would suggest that tobacco causes schizophrenia."


* Jason Schiffman, PhD, Associate Professor of Clinical Psychology at the University of Hawaii at Manoa, et al, reported in their article, "Symptoms of Schizotypy Precede Cannabis Use," published Mar. 30, 2005 in Psychiatric Research:


"The onset of schizotypal symptoms generally precedes the onset of cannabis use. The findings do not support a causal link between cannabis use and schizotypal traits." 


* Lynn Zimmer, PhD, late Professor Emeritus at the Queens College, noted in her 1997 book Marijuana Myths, Marijuana Facts:


"Given that the incidence of schizophrenia declined substantially in Western societies in the 1970s, at the same time cannabis use was rising, it seems highly unlikely that marijuana causes schizophrenia in otherwise healthy people.

shach22180
shach22180

key words . "The participants reported not abusing any drugs other than marijuana.' i.e they have not verified or proven that the participants had not used and abused harder drugs, plus they fail to mention any legal prescription drugs(or just legal drugs) these people have taken. it is very unlikely that some if not most of these teens did not take any prescription drug which may alter the results , since half the group had schizophrenia. therefore this study is worthless if extremely important variables can not be accounted. 


DrMartinJohnson
DrMartinJohnson

This is the most horrendously misleading headline I think I have ever seen!  The study does NOT show or suggest that pot smokers and schizophrenics have similar brains.  Do the editors even read the article or do they create the most inflamatory headline they can think of in order to sell ads?

JeanneJones
JeanneJones

Last week they were saying there is no link between schizophrenia and cannabis. Now they are saying there is. Can't we get the story straight?

KevinHunt
KevinHunt

A teen who consumes alcohol is likely to have reduced brain tissue health, but a teen who uses marijuana is not, according to a study.


“Researchers scanned the brains of 92 adolescents, ages 16 to 20, before and after an 18-month period. During that year and a half, half of the teens -- who already had extensive alcohol and marijuana-use histories -- continued to use marijuana and alcohol in varying amounts. The other half abstained or kept consumption minimal, as they had throughout adolescence.

However, the level of marijuana use -- up to nine times a week during the 18 months -- was not linked to a change in brain tissue health.


The study was conducted by researchers at UC San Diego and was published in the April issue of the journal Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research.”

verofrijole
verofrijole

Primary source? If anyone knows the paper this article is written about can they please share it?

HELLABLAZEDJKLOL
HELLABLAZEDJKLOL

mirror? 37 times the rate vs. 4 times? 


That's a funhouse mirror. 


Did they control for level of education or intelligence? Also, even if the two DO "mirror" each other, it says nothing about smoking marijuana causing schizophrenia.  

Juggernaut866
Juggernaut866

I have smoked for over 20 years. 
During my heavy periods I noticed that my short term memory was going to crap. I wrote notes for everything. When I would lay off for a while and sober up, it took a while to get my head back together. I wouldnt say it causes schizophrenia, but it certainly does change things.

Those who want to bash me, go ahead. I don't care. I was just pointing out a personal observation 

simonep1
simonep1

@Askjiir  This is the most absurd comment I have ever read.  Schizophrenia is by far caused by genetic disposition.  Research widely agrees that marijuana only affects the incidence rates of schizophrenia if it is regularly smoked at a young age (early teens and earlier) - and by approximately 2% at that.  


It's not about free speech - it's about ignorance, stupidity, faulty research, political agendas, and pharmaceutical companies.

E1033
E1033

@mary.waterton  The drug of choice among teens is prescription drugs prescribed to them by their doctors.  How do you conclude something so irrational about marijuana?  None of those shooters were linked to marijuana use yet they all used prescription drugs.  You need to get checked out yourself.

Duncan_20903
Duncan_20903

@ChrisGibbons, it's bad form to presume that journalists walk in lockstep or speak with one voice. That's true even for journalists that work for the same publication. Ms. Szalavitz has demonstrated that she's ethically grounded and is interested in uncovering and promoting the truth. Ms. Sifferlan has now demonstrated that she's a fan of propaganda and has a reckless disregard for the truth. As far as Time Magazine is concerned the editor may just be interested in providing the confidence artists with "equal exposure" out of some misguided sense of "ethical" "responsibility".

I'm sure Ms. Sifferlan believes her intentions in producing this load of propaganda to be good intentions. It's simply amazing how many otherwise honest people don't have a problem promoting propaganda which consists of nothing other than bald faced lies, half truths and hysterical rhetoric when it comes to this particular issue. Those people should sell their good intentions to the Devil for paving material. I understand that he's building a new highway to hell to accommodate the influx of propaganda spewing prohibitionists. That's the only thing that "good" intentioned lies produced to promote their confidence game are good for..

Well, everyone that's read this comments column should learn a very valuable lesson; you just can't fool a prohibitionist. Well, that is unless you dress up a fatherly, scientist looking guy in a lab coat and have him deliver the propaganda in a somber tone of authoritative gravitas. Then you can get them to fall for just about anything you can possibly imagine. 

SlabSquathrust
SlabSquathrust

@BlueStockings24 

Words such as May, perhaps, suggests are all entirely correct.  In fact as a biologist myself, I applaud such usage in journalism.  Use of these words is known as hedging and it is needed to express the uncertainty with any scientific research.  While the research cannot conclusively say heavy marijuana use is linked to certain mental disorders, the correlation is unique enough that the authors can say with something like 95% confidence that the two events are not random coincidence and is statistically significant.  Even in Byrons article you see these same words.  See "capsule suggests" and "may be biomarkers".  Welcome to the wonderful world of science.  

Now as for my own opinion on marijuana use.  Just like any other drug, food, or activity, enjoy it in moderation.  You will avoid any potential health issues from over consumption and won't be consumed by chasing that next high. 

jdpen
jdpen

@DeweySayenoff Thank you for your comment.  Terrible article. It would be nice to have some real facts on marijuana.  Maybe one day

srobynhill
srobynhill

@malcolmkyle16  Brilliant post! Thanks for weighing in with such a thoughtful response AND with citations to other studies being done. 

General thoughts: The more I read, the more it seems that there is really nothing wrong with cannabis (or at least its no worse than other "drugs" that are legal and readily available in unlimited quantities, e.g. alcohol, nicotine, caffeine, sugar - yes, these are all considered to be "drugs" too).


It seems cannabis has different effects on different age groups. For teenagers, smoking cannabis may inhibit/damage brain development in terms of memory, but so does alcohol and that's not illegal. But after that, i.e. when a person reaches full maturity and their brains are pretty much done developing, i.e. around early to mid-20s, the effects of cannabis actually seems to go in reverse. There are many studies that suggest that cannabis, i.e. THC, may actually protect brain cells once they have matured. Other studies even support the idea that, again, once the brain has finished developing, cannabis can actually prevent serious brain problems from developing with old age, such as Alzheimers disease, dementia, memory loss, etc. Cannabis, when taken medicinally (taken as a concentrated oil extract), has also been shown to actually treat cancer and shrink tumors.


After reading about so many studies being done with cannabis, this particular article seems like its stretching the truth, reaching for excuses to perpetuate international prohibition, thus keeping it on the black market where violent criminals can continue to make at least ten times the profits from cannabis than if it were made legally and readily available, and the powers-that-be can make a killing in the stock market from their privatized prison institution investments. More often than not, drug dealers work for the same people investing in privatized prisons. That way, the powers-that-be make even more money off cannabis consumers, profiting any time someone buys a bag of weed and gets away with it AND any time someone buys a bag of weed and gets busted for it. Win-win for the 1%, lose-lose for the rest of us. 

ChrisGibbons
ChrisGibbons

@shach22180uhmmmmmm that is completely correct, some anti-depressants/anziety pills have been linked to smaller areas in the brain, even ADHD medication has been said to not make people any smarter then they are(probably because it's so over prescribed)

ChrisGobin
ChrisGobin

@baxtergsd Now that is what an actual scientific study with merit looks like.  Thanks you.

Duncan_20903
Duncan_20903

@Juggernaut866thanks for signing up just to post that schlock! Are you sure that you didn't forget all the PCP and drinking alcohol that you were using concurrently? Don't you think that your lack of oxygen in the birth canal might have contributed to your "opinion"?


I'm glad that you don't mind being bashed for posting twaddle that bears absolutely no resemblance whatsoever to our reality. I'm sure you're only doing it because you're chock full of "good" intentions.

E1033
E1033

@TylerThompson @E1033 @mary.waterton I'm using a comment to make a comment to make a point to readers who don't understand the topic I'm speaking on.  I honestly don't care if she is sarcastic or not.  I only need the sheep to have that info in their heads to create cognitive dissonance the next time they hear similar information to this article.  Thank you for reading the comment.  1 down, many more to go.

Duncan_20903
Duncan_20903

@Askjiir Don't tell me, let me guess. You've just found these comments columns, right? I didn't do anything to discredit Juggernaut866, he did that all by himself by signing up to make a single bogus comment on a discussion of a thoroughly discredited piece of schlock propaganda. Discredited by anyone that's actually looked into it and doesn't judge people's claims by how closely those claims mirror their own beliefs. All I did was point out his perfidy.

To me the word disgusting applies to people who don't care about the truth, for example, a concern troll that would claim that "many he has known have gotten schizophrenic by it." You know that's just plain hogwash. I always get a good laugh being lectured on morality by people who knowingly post things that they know aren't true. That's a true description of the desperate and the immoral. Moral people don't make things up. You know that you did, and now you know that I know that you did.

If you're going to play a concern troll on the Internet you're in desperate need of practice for making up believable sock puppets. The person behind Juggernaut866 is not one to emulate. Also weeks old comments columns aren't worth your time. You and I are the only ones reading this, and that's because I overlooked turning of notification. Until now that is.


Toodles!